RHEL5 内核参数 Kernel-2.6.18-419.el5_kernel-parameters

                      Kernel Parameters

The following is a consolidated list of the kernel parameters as implemented
(mostly) by the __setup() macro and sorted into English Dictionary order
(defined as ignoring all punctuation and sorting digits before letters in a
case insensitive manner), and with descriptions where known.

Module parameters for loadable modules are specified only as the
parameter name with optional ‘=’ and value as appropriate, such as:

modprobe usbcore blinkenlights=1

Module parameters for modules that are built into the kernel image
are specified on the kernel command line with the module name plus
‘.’ plus parameter name, with ‘=’ and value if appropriate, such as:


This document may not be entirely up to date and comprehensive. The command
“modinfo -p ${modulename}” shows a current list of all parameters of a loadable
module. Loadable modules, after being loaded into the running kernel, also
reveal their parameters in /sys/module/${modulename}/parameters/. Some of these
parameters may be changed at runtime by the command
“echo -n ${value} > /sys/module/${modulename}/parameters/${parm}”.

The parameters listed below are only valid if certain kernel build options were
enabled and if respective hardware is present. The text in square brackets at
the beginning of each description states the restrictions within which a
parameter is applicable:

ACPI    ACPI support is enabled.
ALSA    ALSA sound support is enabled.
APIC    APIC support is enabled.
APM    Advanced Power Management support is enabled.
AX25    Appropriate AX.25 support is enabled.
CD    Appropriate CD support is enabled.
DRM    Direct Rendering Management support is enabled.
EDD    BIOS Enhanced Disk Drive Services (EDD) is enabled
EFI    EFI Partitioning (GPT) is enabled
EIDE    EIDE/ATAPI support is enabled.
FB    The frame buffer device is enabled.
HW    Appropriate hardware is enabled.
IA-32    IA-32 aka i386 architecture is enabled.
IA-64    IA-64 architecture is enabled.
IOSCHED    More than one I/O scheduler is enabled.
IP_PNP    IP DHCP, BOOTP, or RARP is enabled.
ISAPNP    ISA PnP code is enabled.
ISDN    Appropriate ISDN support is enabled.
JOY    Appropriate joystick support is enabled.
LP    Printer support is enabled.
LOOP    Loopback device support is enabled.
M68k    M68k architecture is enabled.
        These options have more detailed description inside of
MCA    MCA bus support is enabled.
MDA    MDA console support is enabled.
MOUSE    Appropriate mouse support is enabled.
MSI    Message Signaled Interrupts (PCI).
MTD    MTD support is enabled.
NET    Appropriate network support is enabled.
NUMA    NUMA support is enabled.
GENERIC_TIME The generic timeofday code is enabled.
NFS    Appropriate NFS support is enabled.
OSS    OSS sound support is enabled.
PARIDE    The ParIDE subsystem is enabled.
PARISC    The PA-RISC architecture is enabled.
PCI    PCI bus support is enabled.
PCMCIA    The PCMCIA subsystem is enabled.
PNP    Plug & Play support is enabled.
PPC    PowerPC architecture is enabled.
PPT    Parallel port support is enabled.
PS2    Appropriate PS/2 support is enabled.
RAM    RAM disk support is enabled.
S390    S390 architecture is enabled.
SCSI    Appropriate SCSI support is enabled.
        A lot of drivers has their options described inside of
SELINUX SELinux support is enabled.
SERIAL    Serial support is enabled.
SMP    The kernel is an SMP kernel.
SPARC    Sparc architecture is enabled.
SWSUSP    Software suspend is enabled.
TS    Appropriate touchscreen support is enabled.
USB    USB support is enabled.
USBHID    USB Human Interface Device support is enabled.
V4L    Video For Linux support is enabled.
VGA    The VGA console has been enabled.
VT    Virtual terminal support is enabled.
WDT    Watchdog support is enabled.
XT    IBM PC/XT MFM hard disk support is enabled.
X86-64    X86-64 architecture is enabled.
        More X86-64 boot options can be found in
        Documentation/x86_64/boot-options.txt .

In addition, the following text indicates that the option:

BUGS=    Relates to possible processor bugs on the said processor.
KNL    Is a kernel start-up parameter.
BOOT    Is a boot loader parameter.

Parameters denoted with BOOT are actually interpreted by the boot
loader, and have no meaning to the kernel directly.
Do not modify the syntax of boot loader parameters without extreme
need or coordination with <Documentation/i386/boot.txt>.

Note that ALL kernel parameters listed below are CASE SENSITIVE, and that
a trailing = on the name of any parameter states that that parameter will
be entered as an environment variable, whereas its absence indicates that
it will appear as a kernel argument readable via /proc/cmdline by programs
running once the system is up.

53c7xx=        [HW,SCSI] Amiga SCSI controllers
        See header of drivers/scsi/53c7xx.c.
        See also Documentation/scsi/ncr53c7xx.txt.

acpi=        [HW,ACPI] Advanced Configuration and Power Interface
        Format: { force | off | ht | strict | noirq }
        force -- enable ACPI if default was off
        off -- disable ACPI if default was on
        noirq -- do not use ACPI for IRQ routing
        ht -- run only enough ACPI to enable Hyper Threading
        strict -- Be less tolerant of platforms that are not
            strictly ACPI specification compliant.

        See also Documentation/pm.txt, pci=noacpi

acpi_sleep=    [HW,ACPI] Sleep options
        Format: { s3_bios, s3_mode }
        See Documentation/power/video.txt

acpi_sci=    [HW,ACPI] ACPI System Control Interrupt trigger mode
        Format: { level | edge | high | low }

acpi_irq_balance [HW,ACPI]
        ACPI will balance active IRQs
        default in APIC mode

acpi_irq_nobalance [HW,ACPI]
        ACPI will not move active IRQs (default)
        default in PIC mode

acpi_irq_pci=    [HW,ACPI] If irq_balance, clear listed IRQs for
        use by PCI
        Format: <irq>,<irq>...

acpi_irq_isa=    [HW,ACPI] If irq_balance, mark listed IRQs used by ISA
        Format: <irq>,<irq>...

acpi_os_name=    [HW,ACPI] Tell ACPI BIOS the name of the OS
        Format: To spoof as Windows 98: ="Microsoft Windows"

acpi_osi=    [HW,ACPI] empty param disables _OSI

acpi_serialize    [HW,ACPI] force serialization of AML methods

acpi_skip_timer_override [HW,ACPI]
        Recognize and ignore IRQ0/pin2 Interrupt Override.
        For broken nForce2 BIOS resulting in XT-PIC timer.

acpi_dbg_layer=    [HW,ACPI]
        Format: <int>
        Each bit of the <int> indicates an ACPI debug layer,
        1: enable, 0: disable. It is useful for boot time
        debugging. After system has booted up, it can be set
        via /proc/acpi/debug_layer.

acpi_dbg_level=    [HW,ACPI]
        Format: <int>
        Each bit of the <int> indicates an ACPI debug level,
        1: enable, 0: disable. It is useful for boot time
        debugging. After system has booted up, it can be set
        via /proc/acpi/debug_level.

acpi_fake_ecdt    [HW,ACPI] Workaround failure due to BIOS lacking ECDT

acpi_generic_hotkey [HW,ACPI]
        Allow consolidated generic hotkey driver to
        override platform specific driver.
        See also Documentation/acpi-hotkey.txt.

acpi_pm_good    [IA-32,X86-64]
        Override the pmtimer bug detection: force the kernel
        to assume that this machine's pmtimer latches its value
        and always returns good values.

enable_timer_pin_1 [i386,x86-64]
        Enable PIN 1 of APIC timer
        Can be useful to work around chipset bugs
        (in particular on some ATI chipsets).
        The kernel tries to set a reasonable default.

disable_timer_pin_1 [i386,x86-64]
        Disable PIN 1 of APIC timer
        Can be useful to work around chipset bugs.

ad1816=        [HW,OSS]
        Format: <io>,<irq>,<dma>,<dma2>
        See also Documentation/sound/oss/AD1816.

ad1848=        [HW,OSS]
        Format: <io>,<irq>,<dma>,<dma2>,<type>

adlib=        [HW,OSS]
        Format: <io>

advansys=    [HW,SCSI]
        See header of drivers/scsi/advansys.c.

advwdt=        [HW,WDT] Advantech WDT
        Format: <iostart>,<iostop>

aedsp16=    [HW,OSS] Audio Excel DSP 16
        Format: <io>,<irq>,<dma>,<mss_io>,<mpu_io>,<mpu_irq>
        See also header of sound/oss/aedsp16.c.

aha152x=    [HW,SCSI]
        See Documentation/scsi/aha152x.txt.

aha1542=    [HW,SCSI]
        Format: <portbase>[,<buson>,<busoff>[,<dmaspeed>]]

aic7xxx=    [HW,SCSI]
        See Documentation/scsi/aic7xxx.txt.

aic79xx=    [HW,SCSI]
        See Documentation/scsi/aic79xx.txt.

amijoy.map=    [HW,JOY] Amiga joystick support
        Map of devices attached to JOY0DAT and JOY1DAT
        Format: <a>,<b>
        See also Documentation/kernel/input/joystick.txt

analog.map=    [HW,JOY] Analog joystick and gamepad support
        Specifies type or capabilities of an analog joystick
        connected to one of 16 gameports
        Format: <type1>,<type2>,..<type16>

apc=        [HW,SPARC]
        Power management functions (SPARCstation-4/5 + deriv.)
        Format: noidle
        Disable APC CPU standby support. SPARCstation-Fox does
        not play well with APC CPU idle - disable it if you have
        APC and your system crashes randomly.

apic=        [APIC,i386] Change the output verbosity whilst booting
        Format: { quiet (default) | verbose | debug }
        Change the amount of debugging information output
        when initialising the APIC and IO-APIC components.

apm=        [APM] Advanced Power Management
        See header of arch/i386/kernel/apm.c.

applicom=    [HW]
        Format: <mem>,<irq>

arcrimi=    [HW,NET] ARCnet - "RIM I" (entirely mem-mapped) cards
        Format: <io>,<irq>,<nodeID>

ataflop=    [HW,M68k]

atarimouse=    [HW,MOUSE] Atari Mouse

atascsi=    [HW,SCSI] Atari SCSI

atkbd.extra=    [HW] Enable extra LEDs and keys on IBM RapidAccess,
        EzKey and similar keyboards

atkbd.reset=    [HW] Reset keyboard during initialization

atkbd.set=    [HW] Select keyboard code set
        Format: <int> (2 = AT (default), 3 = PS/2)

atkbd.scroll=    [HW] Enable scroll wheel on MS Office and similar

atkbd.softraw=    [HW] Choose between synthetic and real raw mode
        Format: <bool> (0 = real, 1 = synthetic (default))

atkbd.softrepeat= [HW]
        Use software keyboard repeat

autotest    [IA64]

awe=        [HW,OSS] AWE32/SB32/AWE64 wave table synth
        Format: <io>,<memsize>,<isapnp>

aztcd=        [HW,CD] Aztech CD268 CDROM driver
        Format: <io>,0x79 (?)

baycom_epp=    [HW,AX25]
        Format: <io>,<mode>

baycom_par=    [HW,AX25] BayCom Parallel Port AX.25 Modem
        Format: <io>,<mode>
        See header of drivers/net/hamradio/baycom_par.c.

baycom_ser_fdx=    [HW,AX25]
        BayCom Serial Port AX.25 Modem (Full Duplex Mode)
        Format: <io>,<irq>,<mode>[,<baud>]
        See header of drivers/net/hamradio/baycom_ser_fdx.c.

baycom_ser_hdx=    [HW,AX25]
        BayCom Serial Port AX.25 Modem (Half Duplex Mode)
        Format: <io>,<irq>,<mode>
        See header of drivers/net/hamradio/baycom_ser_hdx.c.

blkmtd_device=    [HW,MTD]

bttv.card=    [HW,V4L] bttv (bt848 + bt878 based grabber cards)
bttv.radio=    Most important insmod options are available as
        kernel args too.
bttv.pll=    See Documentation/video4linux/bttv/Insmod-options
bttv.tuner=    and Documentation/video4linux/bttv/CARDLIST

BusLogic=    [HW,SCSI]
        See drivers/scsi/BusLogic.c, comment before function

c101=        [NET] Moxa C101 synchronous serial card

cachesize=    [BUGS=IA-32] Override level 2 CPU cache size detection.
        Sometimes CPU hardware bugs make them report the cache
        size incorrectly. The kernel will attempt work arounds
        to fix known problems, but for some CPUs it is not
        possible to determine what the correct size should be.
        This option provides an override for these situations.

cdu31a=        [HW,CD]
        Format: <io>,<irq>[,PAS]
        See header of drivers/cdrom/cdu31a.c.

chandev=    [HW,NET] Generic channel device initialisation

checkreqprot    [SELINUX] Set initial checkreqprot flag value.
        Format: { "0" | "1" }
        See security/selinux/Kconfig help text.
        0 -- check protection applied by kernel (includes
            any implied execute protection).
        1 -- check protection requested by application.
        Default value is set via a kernel config option.
        Value can be changed at runtime via

clock=        [BUGS=IA-32, HW] gettimeofday clocksource override.
        Forces specified clocksource (if avaliable) to be used
        when calculating gettimeofday(). If specified
        clocksource is not avalible, it defaults to PIT.
        Format: { pit | tsc | cyclone | pmtmr }

        [IA32/X86_64] Disable/Enable interrupt 0 timer routing
        over the 8254 in addition to over the IO-APIC. The
        kernel tries to set a sensible default.

hpet=        [IA-32,HPET] option to disable HPET and use PIT.
        Format: disable

cm206=        [HW,CD]
        Format: { auto | [<io>,][<irq>] }

com20020=    [HW,NET] ARCnet - COM20020 chipset

com90io=    [HW,NET] ARCnet - COM90xx chipset (IO-mapped buffers)
        Format: <io>[,<irq>]

com90xx=    [HW,NET]
        ARCnet - COM90xx chipset (memory-mapped buffers)
        Format: <io>[,<irq>[,<memstart>]]

condev=        [HW,S390] console device

console=    [KNL] Output console device and options.

    tty<n>    Use the virtual console device <n>.

        Use the specified serial port.  The options are of
        the form "bbbbpnf", where "bbbb" is the baud rate,
        "p" is parity ("n", "o", or "e"), "n" is number of
        bits, and "f" is flow control ("r" for RTS or
        omit it).  Default is "9600n8".

        See Documentation/serial-console.txt for more
        information.  See
        Documentation/networking/netconsole.txt for an

        Start an early, polled-mode console on the 8250/16550
        UART at the specified I/O port or MMIO address,
        switching to the matching ttyS device later.  The
        options are the same as for ttyS, above.

cpcihp_generic=    [HW,PCI] Generic port I/O CompactPCI driver

cpia_pp=    [HW,PPT]
        Format: { parport<nr> | auto | none }

        [KNL] Reserve a chunk of physical memory to
        hold a kernel to switch to with kexec on panic.

cs4232=        [HW,OSS]
        Format: <io>,<irq>,<dma>,<dma2>,<mpuio>,<mpuirq>

cs89x0_dma=    [HW,NET]
        Format: <dma>

cs89x0_media=    [HW,NET]
        Format: { rj45 | aui | bnc }

cyclades=    [HW,SERIAL] Cyclades multi-serial port adapter.

dasd=        [HW,NET]
        See header of drivers/s390/block/dasd_devmap.c.

db9.dev[2|3]=    [HW,JOY] Multisystem joystick support via parallel port
        (one device per port)
        Format: <port#>,<type>
        See also Documentation/input/joystick-parport.txt

debug        [KNL] Enable kernel debugging (events log level).

        [KNL] verbose self-tests
        Print debugging info while doing the locking API
        We default to 0 (no extra messages), setting it to
        1 will print _a lot_ more information - normally
        only useful to kernel developers.

decnet=        [HW,NET]
        Format: <area>[,<node>]
        See also Documentation/networking/decnet.txt.

dhash_entries=    [KNL]
        Set number of hash buckets for dentry cache.

digi=        [HW,SERIAL]
        IO parameters + enable/disable command.

digiepca=    [HW,SERIAL]
        See drivers/char/README.epca and

dmascc=        [HW,AX25,SERIAL] AX.25 Z80SCC driver with DMA
        support available.
        Format: <io_dev0>[,<io_dev1>[,..<io_dev32>]]

dmasound=    [HW,OSS] Sound subsystem buffers

dscc4.setup=    [NET]

dtc3181e=    [HW,SCSI]

earlyprintk=    [IA-32,X86-64]

        Append ",keep" to not disable it when the real console
        takes over.

        Only vga or serial at a time, not both.

        Currently only ttyS0 and ttyS1 are supported.

        Interaction with the standard serial driver is not
        very good.

        The VGA output is eventually overwritten by the real

eata=        [HW,SCSI]

ec_intr=    [HW,ACPI] ACPI Embedded Controller interrupt mode
        Format: <int>
        0: polling mode
        non-0: interrupt mode (default)

eda=        [HW,PS2]

edb=        [HW,PS2]

edd=        [EDD]
        Format: {"of[f]" | "sk[ipmbr]"}
        See comment in arch/i386/boot/edd.S

eicon=        [HW,ISDN]
        Format: <id>,<membase>,<irq>

eisa_irq_edge=    [PARISC,HW]
        See header of drivers/parisc/eisa.c.

elanfreq=    [IA-32]
        See comment before function elanfreq_setup() in

elevator=    [IOSCHED]
        Format: {"anticipatory" | "cfq" | "deadline" | "noop"}
        See Documentation/block/as-iosched.txt and
        Documentation/block/deadline-iosched.txt for details.

elfcorehdr=    [IA-32, X86_64]
        Specifies physical address of start of kernel core
        image elf header. Generally kexec loader will
        pass this option to capture kernel.
        See Documentation/kdump/kdump.txt for details.

enforcing    [SELINUX] Set initial enforcing status.
        Format: {"0" | "1"}
        See security/selinux/Kconfig help text.
        0 -- permissive (log only, no denials).
        1 -- enforcing (deny and log).
        Default value is 0.
        Value can be changed at runtime via /selinux/enforce.

es1370=        [HW,OSS]
        Format: <lineout>[,<micbias>]
        See also header of sound/oss/es1370.c.

es1371=        [HW,OSS]
        Format: <spdif>,[<nomix>,[<amplifier>]]
        See also header of sound/oss/es1371.c.

ether=        [HW,NET] Ethernet cards parameters
        This option is obsoleted by the "netdev=" option, which
        has equivalent usage. See its documentation for details.

eurwdt=        [HW,WDT] Eurotech CPU-1220/1410 onboard watchdog.
        Format: <io>[,<irq>]

fd_mcs=        [HW,SCSI]
        See header of drivers/scsi/fd_mcs.c.

fdomain=    [HW,SCSI]
        See header of drivers/scsi/fdomain.c.

floppy=        [HW]
        See Documentation/floppy.txt.

ftape=        [HW] Floppy Tape subsystem debugging options.
        See Documentation/ftape.txt.

        [HW,JOY] Multisystem joystick and NES/SNES/PSX pad
        support via parallel port (up to 5 devices per port)
        Format: <port#>,<pad1>,<pad2>,<pad3>,<pad4>,<pad5>
        See also Documentation/input/joystick-parport.txt

gamma=        [HW,DRM]

gdth=        [HW,SCSI]
        See header of drivers/scsi/gdth.c.

gpt        [EFI] Forces disk with valid GPT signature but
        invalid Protective MBR to be treated as GPT.

gscd=        [HW,CD]
        Format: <io>

gt96100eth=    [NET] MIPS GT96100 Advanced Communication Controller

gus=        [HW,OSS]
        Format: <io>,<irq>,<dma>,<dma16>

gvp11=        [HW,SCSI]

hashdist=    [KNL,NUMA] Large hashes allocated during boot
        are distributed across NUMA nodes.  Defaults on
        for IA-64, off otherwise.
        Format: 0 | 1 (for off | on)

hcl=        [IA-64] SGI's Hardware Graph compatibility layer

hd=        [EIDE] (E)IDE hard drive subsystem geometry
        Format: <cyl>,<head>,<sect>

hd?=        [HW] (E)IDE subsystem
hd?lun=        See Documentation/ide.txt.

highmem=nn[KMG]    [KNL,BOOT] forces the highmem zone to have an exact
        size of <nn>. This works even on boxes that have no
        highmem otherwise. This also works to reduce highmem
        size on bigger boxes.

hisax=        [HW,ISDN]
        See Documentation/isdn/README.HiSax.

hugepages=    [HW,IA-32,IA-64] Maximal number of HugeTLB pages.

noirqbalance    [IA-32,SMP,KNL] Disable kernel irq balancing

i8042.direct    [HW] Put keyboard port into non-translated mode
i8042.dumbkbd    [HW] Pretend that controlled can only read data from
             keyboard and can not control its state
             (Don't attempt to blink the leds)
i8042.noaux    [HW] Don't check for auxiliary (== mouse) port
i8042.nokbd    [HW] Don't check/create keyboard port
i8042.nomux    [HW] Don't check presence of an active multiplexing
i8042.nopnp    [HW] Don't use ACPIPnP / PnPBIOS to discover KBD/AUX
        [HW] Frequency with which keyboard LEDs should blink
             when kernel panics (default is 0.5 sec)
i8042.reset    [HW] Reset the controller during init and cleanup
i8042.unlock    [HW] Unlock (ignore) the keylock

i810=        [HW,DRM]

i8k.ignore_dmi    [HW] Continue probing hardware even if DMI data
        indicates that the driver is running on unsupported
i8k.force    [HW] Activate i8k driver even if SMM BIOS signature
        does not match list of supported models.
        [HW] Report power status in /proc/i8k
        (disabled by default)
i8k.restricted    [HW] Allow controlling fans only if SYS_ADMIN
        capability is set.

ibmmcascsi=    [HW,MCA,SCSI] IBM MicroChannel SCSI adapter
        See Documentation/mca.txt.

icn=        [HW,ISDN]
        Format: <io>[,<membase>[,<icn_id>[,<icn_id2>]]]

ide=        [HW] (E)IDE subsystem
        Format: ide=nodma or ide=doubler or ide=reverse
        See Documentation/ide.txt.

ide?=        [HW] (E)IDE subsystem
        Format: ide?=noprobe or chipset specific parameters.
        See Documentation/ide.txt.

idebus=        [HW] (E)IDE subsystem - VLB/PCI bus speed
        See Documentation/ide.txt.

idle=        [HW]
        Format: idle=poll or idle=halt

ihash_entries=    [KNL]
        Set number of hash buckets for inode cache.

in2000=        [HW,SCSI]
        See header of drivers/scsi/in2000.c.

init=        [KNL]
        Format: <full_path>
        Run specified binary instead of /sbin/init as init

initcall_debug    [KNL] Trace initcalls as they are executed.  Useful
        for working out where the kernel is dying during

initrd=        [BOOT] Specify the location of the initial ramdisk

inport.irq=    [HW] Inport (ATI XL and Microsoft) busmouse driver
        Format: <irq>

combined_mode=    [HW] control which driver uses IDE ports in combined
        mode: legacy IDE driver, libata, or both
        (in the libata case, libata.atapi_enabled=1 may be
        useful as well).  Note that using the ide or libata
        options may affect your device naming (e.g. by
        changing hdc to sdb).
        Format: combined (default), ide, or libata

inttest=    [IA64]

io7=        [HW] IO7 for Marvel based alpha systems
        See comment before marvel_specify_io7 in

ip=        [IP_PNP]
        See Documentation/nfsroot.txt.

ip2=        [HW] Set IO/IRQ pairs for up to 4 IntelliPort boards
        See comment before ip2_setup() in drivers/char/ip2.c.

ips=        [HW,SCSI] Adaptec / IBM ServeRAID controller
        See header of drivers/scsi/ips.c.

ports=        [IP_VS_FTP] IPVS ftp helper module
        Default is 21.
        Up to 8 (IP_VS_APP_MAX_PORTS) ports
        may be specified.
        Format: <port>,<port>....

irqfixup    [HW]
        When an interrupt is not handled search all handlers
        for it. Intended to get systems with badly broken
        firmware running.

irqpoll        [HW]
        When an interrupt is not handled search all handlers
        for it. Also check all handlers each timer
        interrupt. Intended to get systems with badly broken
        firmware running.

isapnp=        [ISAPNP]
        Format: <RDP>,<reset>,<pci_scan>,<verbosity>

isolcpus=    [KNL,SMP] Isolate CPUs from the general scheduler.
        Format: <cpu number>,...,<cpu number>
        This option can be used to specify one or more CPUs
        to isolate from the general SMP balancing and scheduling
        algorithms. The only way to move a process onto or off
        an "isolated" CPU is via the CPU affinity syscalls.
        <cpu number> begins at 0 and the maximum value is
        "number of CPUs in system - 1".

        This option is the preferred way to isolate CPUs. The
        alternative -- manually setting the CPU mask of all
        tasks in the system -- can cause problems and
        suboptimal load balancer performance.

isp16=        [HW,CD]
        Format: <io>,<irq>,<dma>,<setup>

iucv=        [HW,NET]

js=        [HW,JOY] Analog joystick
        See Documentation/input/joystick.txt.

keepinitrd    [HW,ARM]

kstack=N    [IA-32,X86-64] Print N words from the kernel stack
        in oops dumps.

l2cr=        [PPC]

lapic        [IA-32,APIC] Enable the local APIC even if BIOS
        disabled it.

lasi=        [HW,SCSI] PARISC LASI driver for the 53c700 chip
        Format: addr:<io>,irq:<irq>

llsc*=        [IA64] See function print_params() in

load_ramdisk=    [RAM] List of ramdisks to load from floppy
        See Documentation/ramdisk.txt.

lockd.nlm_grace_period=P  [NFS] Assign grace period.
        Format: <integer>

lockd.nlm_tcpport=N    [NFS] Assign TCP port.
        Format: <integer>

lockd.nlm_timeout=T    [NFS] Assign timeout value.
        Format: <integer>

lockd.nlm_udpport=M    [NFS] Assign UDP port.
        Format: <integer>

logibm.irq=    [HW,MOUSE] Logitech Bus Mouse Driver
        Format: <irq>

loglevel=    All Kernel Messages with a loglevel smaller than the
        console loglevel will be printed to the console. It can
        also be changed with klogd or other programs. The
        loglevels are defined as follows:

        0 (KERN_EMERG)        system is unusable
        1 (KERN_ALERT)        action must be taken immediately
        2 (KERN_CRIT)        critical conditions
        3 (KERN_ERR)        error conditions
        4 (KERN_WARNING)    warning conditions
        5 (KERN_NOTICE)        normal but significant condition
        6 (KERN_INFO)        informational
        7 (KERN_DEBUG)        debug-level messages

log_buf_len=n    Sets the size of the printk ring buffer, in bytes.
        Format: { n | nk | nM }
        n must be a power of two.  The default size
        is set in the kernel config file.

lp=0        [LP]    Specify parallel ports to use, e.g,
lp=port[,port...]    lp=none,parport0 (lp0 not configured, lp1 uses
lp=reset        first parallel port). 'lp=0' disables the
lp=auto            printer driver. 'lp=reset' (which can be
            specified in addition to the ports) causes
            attached printers to be reset. Using
            lp=port1,port2,... specifies the parallel ports
            to associate lp devices with, starting with
            lp0. A port specification may be 'none' to skip
            that lp device, or a parport name such as
            'parport0'. Specifying 'lp=auto' instead of a
            port specification list means that device IDs
            from each port should be examined, to see if
            an IEEE 1284-compliant printer is attached; if
            so, the driver will manage that printer.
            See also header of drivers/char/lp.c.

lpj=n        [KNL]
        Sets loops_per_jiffy to given constant, thus avoiding
        time-consuming boot-time autodetection (up to 250 ms per
        CPU). 0 enables autodetection (default). To determine
        the correct value for your kernel, boot with normal
        autodetection and see what value is printed. Note that
        on SMP systems the preset will be applied to all CPUs,
        which is likely to cause problems if your CPUs need
        significantly divergent settings. An incorrect value
        will cause delays in the kernel to be wrong, leading to
        unpredictable I/O errors and other breakage. Although
        unlikely, in the extreme case this might damage your

ltpc=        [NET]
        Format: <io>,<irq>,<dma>

mac5380=    [HW,SCSI] Format:

mac53c9x=    [HW,SCSI] Format:

machvec=    [IA64] Force the use of a particular machine-vector
        (machvec) in a generic kernel.
        Example: machvec=hpzx1_swiotlb

mad16=        [HW,OSS] Format:

maui=        [HW,OSS]
        Format: <io>,<irq>

max_loop=    [LOOP] Maximum number of loopback devices that can
        be mounted
        Format: <1-256>

maxcpus=    [SMP] Maximum number of processors that    an SMP kernel
        should make use of

max_addr=[KMG]    [KNL,BOOT,ia64] All physical memory greater than or
        equal to this physical address is ignored.

max_luns=    [SCSI] Maximum number of LUNs to probe.
        Should be between 1 and 2^32-1.

        [SCSI] Maximum number of LUNs received.
        Should be between 1 and 16384.

mca-pentium    [BUGS=IA-32]

mcatest=    [IA-64]

mcd=        [HW,CD]
        Format: <port>,<irq>,<mitsumi_bug_93_wait>

mcdx=        [HW,CD]

mce        [IA-32] Machine Check Exception

md=        [HW] RAID subsystems devices and level
        See Documentation/md.txt.

mdacon=        [MDA]
        Format: <first>,<last>
        Specifies range of consoles to be captured by the MDA.

mem=nn[KMG]    [KNL,BOOT] Force usage of a specific amount of memory
        Amount of memory to be used when the kernel is not able
        to see the whole system memory or for test.
        [IA-32] Use together with memmap= to avoid physical
        address space collisions. Without memmap= PCI devices
        could be placed at addresses belonging to unused RAM.

mem=nopentium    [BUGS=IA-32] Disable usage of 4MB pages for kernel

memmap=exactmap    [KNL,IA-32,X86_64] Enable setting of an exact
        E820 memory map, as specified by the user.
        Such memmap=exactmap lines can be constructed based on
        BIOS output or other requirements. See the memmap=nn@ss
        option description.

        [KNL] Force usage of a specific region of memory
        Region of memory to be used, from ss to ss+nn.

        [KNL,ACPI] Mark specific memory as ACPI data.
        Region of memory to be used, from ss to ss+nn.

        [KNL,ACPI] Mark specific memory as reserved.
        Region of memory to be used, from ss to ss+nn.

meye.*=        [HW] Set MotionEye Camera parameters
        See Documentation/video4linux/meye.txt.

mga=        [HW,DRM]

        [KNL,SMP] debug: override scheduler migration costs
        Format: <level-1-usecs>,<level-2-usecs>,...
        This debugging option can be used to override the
        default scheduler migration cost matrix. The numbers
        are indexed by 'CPU domain distance'.
        E.g. migration_cost=1000,2000,3000 on an SMT NUMA
        box will set up an intra-core migration cost of
        1 msec, an inter-core migration cost of 2 msecs,
        and an inter-node migration cost of 3 msecs.

        WARNING: using the wrong values here can break
        scheduler performance, so it's only for scheduler
        development purposes, not production environments.

        [KNL,SMP] migration cost auto-detect verbosity
        If a system's migration matrix reported at bootup
        seems erroneous then this option can be used to
        increase verbosity of the detection process.
        We default to 0 (no extra messages), 1 will print
        some more information, and 2 will be really
        verbose (probably only useful if you also have a
        serial console attached to the system).

        [KNL,SMP] multiply/divide migration costs by a factor
        This debug option can be used to proportionally
        increase or decrease the auto-detected migration
        costs for all entries of the migration matrix.
        E.g. migration_factor=150 will increase migration
        costs by 50%. (and thus the scheduler will be less
        eager migrating cache-hot tasks)
        migration_factor=80 will decrease migration costs
        by 20%. (thus the scheduler will be more eager to
        migrate tasks)

        WARNING: using the wrong values here can break
        scheduler performance, so it's only for scheduler
        development purposes, not production environments.

        [MOUSE] Maximum time between finger touching and
        leaving touchpad surface for touch to be considered
        a tap and be reported as a left button click (for
        touchpads working in absolute mode only).
        Format: <msecs>
mousedev.xres=    [MOUSE] Horizontal screen resolution, used for devices
        reporting absolute coordinates, such as tablets
mousedev.yres=    [MOUSE] Vertical screen resolution, used for devices
        reporting absolute coordinates, such as tablets

mpu401=        [HW,OSS]
        Format: <io>,<irq>

MTD_Partition=    [MTD]
        Format: <name>,<region-number>,<size>,<offset>

MTD_Region=    [MTD] Format:

mtdparts=    [MTD]
        See drivers/mtd/cmdline.c.

        [HW] Make the MicroTouch USB driver use raw coordinates
        ('y', default) or cooked coordinates ('n')

n2=        [NET] SDL Inc. RISCom/N2 synchronous serial card

NCR_D700=    [HW,SCSI]
        See header of drivers/scsi/NCR_D700.c.

ncr5380=    [HW,SCSI]

ncr53c400=    [HW,SCSI]

ncr53c400a=    [HW,SCSI]

ncr53c406a=    [HW,SCSI]

ncr53c8xx=    [HW,SCSI]

netdev=        [NET] Network devices parameters
        Format: <irq>,<io>,<mem_start>,<mem_end>,<name>
        Note that mem_start is often overloaded to mean
        something different and driver-specific.
        This usage is only documented in each driver source
        file if at all.

nfsaddrs=    [NFS]
        See Documentation/nfsroot.txt.

nfsroot=    [NFS] nfs root filesystem for disk-less boxes.
        See Documentation/nfsroot.txt.

        [NFS] set the TCP port on which the NFSv4 callback
        channel should listen.

        [NFS] set the maximum lifetime for idmapper cache

nmi_watchdog=    [KNL,BUGS=IA-32] Debugging features for SMP kernels

no387        [BUGS=IA-32] Tells the kernel to use the 387 maths
        emulation library even if a 387 maths coprocessor
        is present.

noalign        [KNL,ARM]

noapic        [SMP,APIC] Tells the kernel to not make use of any
        IOAPICs that may be present in the system.

noasync        [HW,M68K] Disables async and sync negotiation for
        all devices.

nobats        [PPC] Do not use BATs for mapping kernel lowmem
        on "Classic" PPC cores.

nocache        [ARM]

nodelayacct    [KNL] Disable per-task delay accounting

nodisconnect    [HW,SCSI,M68K] Disables SCSI disconnects.

noexec        [IA-64]

noexec        [IA-32,X86-64]
        noexec=on: enable non-executable mappings (default)
        noexec=off: disable nn-executable mappings

nofxsr        [BUGS=IA-32] Disables x86 floating point extended
        register save and restore. The kernel will only save
        legacy floating-point registers on task switch.

nohlt        [BUGS=ARM]

no-hlt        [BUGS=IA-32] Tells the kernel that the hlt
        instruction doesn't work correctly and not to
        use it.

nohalt        [IA-64] Tells the kernel not to use the power saving
        function PAL_HALT_LIGHT when idle. This increases
        power-consumption. On the positive side, it reduces
        interrupt wake-up latency, which may improve performance
        in certain environments such as networked servers or
        real-time systems.

noirqdebug    [IA-32] Disables the code which attempts to detect and
        disable unhandled interrupt sources.

noisapnp    [ISAPNP] Disables ISA PnP code.

noinitrd    [RAM] Tells the kernel not to load any configured
        initial RAM disk.

nointroute    [IA-64]

nolapic        [IA-32,APIC] Do not enable or use the local APIC.

noltlbs        [PPC] Do not use large page/tlb entries for kernel
        lowmem mapping on PPC40x.

nomca        [IA-64] Disable machine check abort handling

nomce        [IA-32] Machine Check Exception

noresidual    [PPC] Don't use residual data on PReP machines.

noresume    [SWSUSP] Disables resume and restores original swap

no-scroll    [VGA] Disables scrollback.
        This is required for the Braillex ib80-piezo Braille
        reader made by F.H. Papenmeier (Germany).

nosbagart    [IA-64]

nosep        [BUGS=IA-32] Disables x86 SYSENTER/SYSEXIT support.

nosmp        [SMP] Tells an SMP kernel to act as a UP kernel.

nosync        [HW,M68K] Disables sync negotiation for all devices.

notsc        [BUGS=IA-32] Disable Time Stamp Counter

nousb        [USB] Disable the USB subsystem

nowb        [ARM]

nr_uarts=    [SERIAL] maximum number of UARTs to be registered.

opl3=        [HW,OSS]
        Format: <io>

opl3sa=        [HW,OSS]
        Format: <io>,<irq>,<dma>,<dma2>,<mpu_io>,<mpu_irq>

opl3sa2=    [HW,OSS] Format:

oprofile.timer=    [HW]
        Use timer interrupt instead of performance counters

optcd=        [HW,CD]
        Format: <io>

osst=        [HW,SCSI] SCSI Tape Driver
        Format: <buffer_size>,<write_threshold>
        See also Documentation/scsi/st.txt.

panic=        [KNL] Kernel behaviour on panic
        Format: <timeout>

parkbd.port=    [HW] Parallel port number the keyboard adapter is
        connected to, default is 0.
        Format: <parport#>
parkbd.mode=    [HW] Parallel port keyboard adapter mode of operation,
        0 for XT, 1 for AT (default is AT).
        Format: <mode>

parport=    [HW,PPT] Specify parallel ports. 0 disables.
        Format: { 0 | auto | 0xBBB[,IRQ[,DMA]] }
        Use 'auto' to force the driver to use any
        IRQ/DMA settings detected (the default is to
        ignore detected IRQ/DMA settings because of
        possible conflicts). You can specify the base
        address, IRQ, and DMA settings; IRQ and DMA
        should be numbers, or 'auto' (for using detected
        settings on that particular port), or 'nofifo'
        (to avoid using a FIFO even if it is detected).
        Parallel ports are assigned in the order they
        are specified on the command line, starting
        with parport0.

parport_init_mode=    [HW,PPT]
        Configure VIA parallel port to operate in
        a specific mode. This is necessary on Pegasos
        computer where firmware has no options for setting
        up parallel port mode and sets it to spp.
        Currently this function knows 686a and 8231 chips.
        Format: [spp|ps2|epp|ecp|ecpepp]

pas2=        [HW,OSS] Format:

pas16=        [HW,SCSI]
        See header of drivers/scsi/pas16.c.

        Halt all CPUs after the first oops has been printed for
        the specified number of seconds.  This is to be used if
        your oopses keep scrolling off the screen.

pcbit=        [HW,ISDN]

pcd.        [PARIDE]
        See header of drivers/block/paride/pcd.c.
        See also Documentation/paride.txt.

pci=option[,option...]    [PCI] various PCI subsystem options:
    off        [IA-32] don't probe for the PCI bus
    bios        [IA-32] force use of PCI BIOS, don't access
            the hardware directly. Use this if your machine
            has a non-standard PCI host bridge.
    nobios        [IA-32] disallow use of PCI BIOS, only direct
            hardware access methods are allowed. Use this
            if you experience crashes upon bootup and you
            suspect they are caused by the BIOS.
    conf1        [IA-32] Force use of PCI Configuration
            Mechanism 1.
    conf2        [IA-32] Force use of PCI Configuration
            Mechanism 2.
    nommconf    [IA-32,X86_64] Disable use of MMCONFIG for PCI
    nomsi        [MSI] If the PCI_MSI kernel config parameter is
            enabled, this kernel boot option can be used to
            disable the use of MSI interrupts system-wide.
    nosort        [IA-32] Don't sort PCI devices according to
            order given by the PCI BIOS. This sorting is
            done to get a device order compatible with
            older kernels.
    biosirq        [IA-32] Use PCI BIOS calls to get the interrupt
            routing table. These calls are known to be buggy
            on several machines and they hang the machine
            when used, but on other computers it's the only
            way to get the interrupt routing table. Try
            this option if the kernel is unable to allocate
            IRQs or discover secondary PCI buses on your
    rom        [IA-32] Assign address space to expansion ROMs.
            Use with caution as certain devices share
            address decoders between ROMs and other
    irqmask=0xMMMM    [IA-32] Set a bit mask of IRQs allowed to be
            assigned automatically to PCI devices. You can
            make the kernel exclude IRQs of your ISA cards
            this way.
    pirqaddr=0xAAAAA    [IA-32] Specify the physical address
            of the PIRQ table (normally generated
            by the BIOS) if it is outside the
            F0000h-100000h range.
    lastbus=N    [IA-32] Scan all buses thru bus #N. Can be
            useful if the kernel is unable to find your
            secondary buses and you want to tell it
            explicitly which ones they are.
    assign-busses    [IA-32] Always assign all PCI bus
            numbers ourselves, overriding
            whatever the firmware may have done.
    usepirqmask    [IA-32] Honor the possible IRQ mask stored
            in the BIOS $PIR table. This is needed on
            some systems with broken BIOSes, notably
            some HP Pavilion N5400 and Omnibook XE3
            notebooks. This will have no effect if ACPI
            IRQ routing is enabled.
    noacpi        [IA-32] Do not use ACPI for IRQ routing
            or for PCI scanning.
    routeirq    Do IRQ routing for all PCI devices.
            This is normally done in pci_enable_device(),
            so this option is a temporary workaround
            for broken drivers that don't call it.
    firmware    [ARM] Do not re-enumerate the bus but instead
            just use the configuration from the
            bootloader. This is currently used on
            IXP2000 systems where the bus has to be
            configured a certain way for adjunct CPUs.

pcmv=        [HW,PCMCIA] BadgePAD 4

pd.        [PARIDE]
        See Documentation/paride.txt.

pdcchassis=    [PARISC,HW] Disable/Enable PDC Chassis Status codes at
        boot time.
        Format: { 0 | 1 }
        See arch/parisc/kernel/pdc_chassis.c

pf.        [PARIDE]
        See Documentation/paride.txt.

pg.        [PARIDE]
        See Documentation/paride.txt.

pirq=        [SMP,APIC] Manual mp-table setup
        See Documentation/i386/IO-APIC.txt.

plip=        [PPT,NET] Parallel port network link
        Format: { parport<nr> | timid | 0 }
        See also Documentation/parport.txt.

pnpacpi=    [ACPI]
        { off }

pnpbios=    [ISAPNP]
        { on | off | curr | res | no-curr | no-res }

        [ISAPNP] Exclude IRQs for the autoconfiguration

        [ISAPNP] Exclude DMAs for the autoconfiguration

pnp_reserve_io=    [ISAPNP] Exclude I/O ports for the autoconfiguration
        Ranges are in pairs (I/O port base and size).

        [ISAPNP] Exclude memory regions for the
        Ranges are in pairs (memory base and size).

profile=    [KNL] Enable kernel profiling via /proc/profile
        Format: [schedule,]<number>
        Param: "schedule" - profile schedule points.
        Param: <number> - step/bucket size as a power of 2 for
            statistical time based profiling.

processor.max_cstate=    [HW,ACPI]
        Limit processor to maximum C-state
        max_cstate=9 overrides any DMI blacklist limit.

processor.nocst    [HW,ACPI]
        Ignore the _CST method to determine C-states,
        instead using the legacy FADT method

prompt_ramdisk=    [RAM] List of RAM disks to prompt for floppy disk
        before loading.
        See Documentation/ramdisk.txt.

psmouse.proto=    [HW,MOUSE] Highest PS2 mouse protocol extension to
        probe for; one of (bare|imps|exps|lifebook|any).
psmouse.rate=    [HW,MOUSE] Set desired mouse report rate, in reports
        per second.
psmouse.resetafter=    [HW,MOUSE]
        Try to reset the device after so many bad packets
        (0 = never).
        [HW,MOUSE] Set desired mouse resolution, in dpi.
        [HW,MOUSE] Controls Logitech smartscroll autorepeat.
        0 = disabled, 1 = enabled (default).

pss=        [HW,OSS] Personal Sound System (ECHO ESC614)

pt.        [PARIDE]
        See Documentation/paride.txt.

quiet=        [KNL] Disable log messages

r128=        [HW,DRM]

raid=        [HW,RAID]
        See Documentation/md.txt.

ramdisk=    [RAM] Sizes of RAM disks in kilobytes [deprecated]
        See Documentation/ramdisk.txt.

ramdisk_blocksize=    [RAM]
        See Documentation/ramdisk.txt.

ramdisk_size=    [RAM] Sizes of RAM disks in kilobytes
        New name for the ramdisk parameter.
        See Documentation/ramdisk.txt.

rcu.blimit=    [KNL,BOOT] Set maximum number of finished
        RCU callbacks to process in one batch.

rcu.qhimark=    [KNL,BOOT] Set threshold of queued
        RCU callbacks over which batch limiting is disabled.

rcu.qlowmark=    [KNL,BOOT] Set threshold of queued
        RCU callbacks below which batch limiting is re-enabled.

rcu.rsinterval=    [KNL,BOOT,SMP] Set the number of additional
        RCU callbacks to queued before forcing reschedule
        on all cpus.

rdinit=        [KNL]
        Format: <full_path>
        Run specified binary instead of /init from the ramdisk,
        used for early userspace startup. See initrd.

reboot=        [BUGS=IA-32,BUGS=ARM,BUGS=IA-64] Rebooting mode
        Format: <reboot_mode>[,<reboot_mode2>[,...]]
        See arch/*/kernel/reboot.c.

reserve=    [KNL,BUGS] Force the kernel to ignore some iomem area

resume=        [SWSUSP]
        Specify the partition device for software suspend

rhash_entries=    [KNL,NET]
        Set number of hash buckets for route cache

riscom8=    [HW,SERIAL]
        Format: <io_board1>[,<io_board2>[,...<io_boardN>]]

ro        [KNL] Mount root device read-only on boot

root=        [KNL] Root filesystem

rootdelay=    [KNL] Delay (in seconds) to pause before attempting to
        mount the root filesystem

rootflags=    [KNL] Set root filesystem mount option string

rootfstype=    [KNL] Set root filesystem type

rw        [KNL] Mount root device read-write on boot

S        [KNL] Run init in single mode

sa1100ir    [NET]
        See drivers/net/irda/sa1100_ir.c.

sb=        [HW,OSS]
        Format: <io>,<irq>,<dma>,<dma2>

sbni=        [NET] Granch SBNI12 leased line adapter

sbpcd=        [HW,CD] Soundblaster CD adapter
        Format: <io>,<type>
        See a comment before function sbpcd_setup() in

sc1200wdt=    [HW,WDT] SC1200 WDT (watchdog) driver
        Format: <io>[,<timeout>[,<isapnp>]]

scsi_debug_*=    [SCSI]
        See drivers/scsi/scsi_debug.c.

        [SCSI] SCSI default device flags
        Format: <integer>

scsi_dev_flags=    [SCSI] Black/white list entry for vendor and model
        Format: <vendor>:<model>:<flags>
        (flags are integer value)

scsi_logging=    [SCSI]

selinux        [SELINUX] Disable or enable SELinux at boot time.
        Format: { "0" | "1" }
        See security/selinux/Kconfig help text.
        0 -- disable.
        1 -- enable.
        Default value is set via kernel config option.
        If enabled at boot time, /selinux/disable can be used
        later to disable prior to initial policy load.

selinux_compat_net =
        [SELINUX] Set initial selinux_compat_net flag value.
                    Format: { "0" | "1" }
                    0 -- use new secmark-based packet controls
                    1 -- use legacy packet controls
                    Default value is 0 (preferred).
                    Value can be changed at runtime via

serialnumber    [BUGS=IA-32]

sg_def_reserved_size=    [SCSI]

sgalaxy=    [HW,OSS]
        Format: <io>,<irq>,<dma>,<dma2>,<sgbase>

shapers=    [NET]
        Maximal number of shapers.

sim710=        [SCSI,HW]
        See header of drivers/scsi/sim710.c.

simeth=        [IA-64]

sjcd=        [HW,CD]
        Format: <io>,<irq>,<dma>
        See header of drivers/cdrom/sjcd.c.

slram=        [HW,MTD]

smart2=        [HW]
        Format: <io1>[,<io2>[,...,<io8>]]

snd-ad1816a=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-ad1848=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-ali5451=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-als100=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-als4000=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-azt2320=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-cmi8330=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-cmipci=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-cs4231=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-cs4232=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-cs4236=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-cs4281=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-cs46xx=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-dt019x=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-dummy=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-emu10k1=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-ens1370=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-ens1371=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-es968=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-es1688=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-es18xx=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-es1938=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-es1968=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-fm801=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-gusclassic=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-gusextreme=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-gusmax=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-hdsp=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-ice1712=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-intel8x0=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-interwave=    [HW,ALSA]


snd-korg1212=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-maestro3=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-mpu401=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-mtpav=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-nm256=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-opl3sa2=    [HW,ALSA]



snd-opti93x=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-pmac=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-rme32=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-rme96=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-rme9652=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-sb8=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-sb16=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-sbawe=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-serial=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-sgalaxy=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-sonicvibes=    [HW,ALSA]


snd-sun-cs4231=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-trident=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-usb-audio=    [HW,ALSA,USB]

snd-via82xx=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-virmidi=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-wavefront=    [HW,ALSA]

snd-ymfpci=    [HW,ALSA]

sonicvibes=    [HW,OSS]
        Format: <reverb>

sonycd535=    [HW,CD]
        Format: <io>[,<irq>]

sonypi.*=    [HW] Sony Programmable I/O Control Device driver
        See Documentation/sonypi.txt

specialix=    [HW,SERIAL] Specialix multi-serial port adapter
        See Documentation/specialix.txt.

spia_io_base=    [HW,MTD]

sscape=        [HW,OSS]
        Format: <io>,<irq>,<dma>,<mpu_io>,<mpu_irq>

st=        [HW,SCSI] SCSI tape parameters (buffers, etc.)
        See Documentation/scsi/st.txt.

st0x=        [HW,SCSI]
        See header of drivers/scsi/seagate.c.

sti=        [PARISC,HW]
        Format: <num>
        Set the STI (builtin display/keyboard on the HP-PARISC
        machines) console (graphic card) which should be used
        as the initial boot-console.
        See also comment in drivers/video/console/sticore.c.

sti_font=    [HW]
        See comment in drivers/video/console/sticore.c.

stifb=        [HW]
        Format: bpp:<bpp1>[:<bpp2>[:<bpp3>...]]

swiotlb=    [IA-64] Number of I/O TLB slabs

switches=    [HW,M68k]

sym53c416=    [HW,SCSI]
        See header of drivers/scsi/sym53c416.c.

t128=        [HW,SCSI]
        See header of drivers/scsi/t128.c.

tdfx=        [HW,DRM]

thash_entries=    [KNL,NET]
        Set number of hash buckets for TCP connection

time        Show timing data prefixed to each printk message line

clocksource=    [GENERIC_TIME] Override the default clocksource
        Override the default clocksource and use the clocksource
        with the name specified.

tipar.timeout=    [HW,PPT]
        Set communications timeout in tenths of a second
        (default 15).

tipar.delay=    [HW,PPT]
        Set inter-bit delay in microseconds (default 10).

tmc8xx=        [HW,SCSI]
        See header of drivers/scsi/seagate.c.

tmscsim=    [HW,SCSI]
        See comment before function dc390_setup() in

tp720=        [HW,PS2]

trix=        [HW,OSS] MediaTrix AudioTrix Pro

tsdev.xres=    [TS] Horizontal screen resolution.
tsdev.yres=    [TS] Vertical screen resolution.

turbografx.map[2|3]=    [HW,JOY]
        TurboGraFX parallel port interface
        See also Documentation/input/joystick-parport.txt

u14-34f=    [HW,SCSI] UltraStor 14F/34F SCSI host adapter
        See header of drivers/scsi/u14-34f.c.

uart401=    [HW,OSS]
        Format: <io>,<irq>

uart6850=    [HW,OSS]
        Format: <io>,<irq>

        [USBHID] The interval which mice are to be polled at.

vdso=        [IA-32]
        vdso=1: enable VDSO (default)
        vdso=0: disable VDSO mapping

video=        [FB] Frame buffer configuration
        See Documentation/fb/modedb.txt.

vga=        [BOOT,IA-32] Select a particular video mode
        See Documentation/i386/boot.txt and
        Use vga=ask for menu.
        This is actually a boot loader parameter; the value is
        passed to the kernel using a special protocol.

vmalloc=nn[KMG]    [KNL,BOOT] Forces the vmalloc area to have an exact
        size of <nn>. This can be used to increase the
        minimum size (128MB on x86). It can also be used to
        decrease the size and leave more room for directly
        mapped kernel RAM.

vmhalt=        [KNL,S390] Perform z/VM CP command after system halt.
        Format: <command>

vmpanic=    [KNL,S390] Perform z/VM CP command after kernel panic.
        Format: <command>

vmpoff=        [KNL,S390] Perform z/VM CP command after power off.
        Format: <command>

waveartist=    [HW,OSS]
        Format: <io>,<irq>,<dma>,<dma2>

wd33c93=    [HW,SCSI]
        See header of drivers/scsi/wd33c93.c.

wd7000=        [HW,SCSI]
        See header of drivers/scsi/wd7000.c.

wdt=        [WDT] Watchdog
        See Documentation/watchdog/watchdog.txt.

xd=        [HW,XT] Original XT pre-IDE (RLL encoded) disks.
xd_geo=        See header of drivers/block/xd.c.

xirc2ps_cs=    [NET,PCMCIA]

norandmaps    Don't use address space randomization
        Equivalent to echo 0 > /proc/sys/kernel/randomize_va_space


Add documentation for ALSA options.
Add more DRM drivers.